What is the standard DC charging standard for electric vehicles? May 29, 2023

The European electric vehicle charging standard CCS2 is a combined standard that integrates AC charging and DC charging. The combined charging system is an open international standardized system, mainly promoted by Audi, BMW, Chrysler, Daimler, Ford, General Motors, Porsche and Volkswagen. Vehicles exported to Europe need to meet their physical interface and communication requirements.


European electric vehicle charging standards mainly include:

1. Interface standard: IEC 62196-1, IEC 62196-2, IEC 62196-3;

2. Power supply standard: IEC 61851-1, IEC 61851-21, IEC 61851-22, IEC 61851-23;

3. Vehicle standards: ISO 6469-3, ISO 17409;

4. Communication standards: ISO/IEC 15118-1, ISO/IEC 15118-2, ISO/IEC 15118-3, ISO/IEC 15118-4, IEC 61851-24, IEC 61850, ISO/IEC 15118-20;

5. General standards: IEC 61439-7, IEC 60038, IEC 61000-4-4, IEC 61000-4-5, IEC 61000-4-5, IEC 61000-4-11, IEC 61557-8, IEC 61000-6 -1, IEC 60529, IEC 60364-7-722.


DC Charging Sequence Diagram

The timing of DC charging and its associated system activities are described in detail in IEC 61851-23 Annex CC.


Figure 1. Normal working sequence diagram  Source: IEC 61851-23


Figure 2. Detailed charging sequence  Source: IEC 61851-23


Charging signal interaction process and potential faults during charging:

1. If the charging gun is not inserted in place, the CP signal cannot be detected, which affects the charging signal interaction, and the charging process will exit.

2. After the gun is inserted, the insulation resistance value is too low, the insulation test cannot pass, and there may be a possibility that the IP protection level does not meet the requirements.

3. The duty cycle of the CP signal is invalid and cannot be charged.

4. The PLC communication signal cannot be parsed or is incompatible, and cannot be charged.

5. The electronic lock is not locked (not driven or the electronic lock is damaged, etc.), and cannot be charged.

6. Overvoltage, overcurrent, overtemperature, or reverse current during charging will stop charging.

7. The pre-charging cannot be completed normally, and the charging cannot continue normally.

8. The output voltage of the charging pile does not match the demand voltage, and the charging will stop.

9. If the charging socket is overheated, the charging will be derated or stopped.

10. Electronic lock failure, live plugging and arcing, affecting charging safety.


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