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News & case
What’s the EV charging connector standards? Jul 26, 2022

Electric vehicle (EV) charging connectors are both standardized and constantly changing. On the one hand, the charging connector of electric vehicles is standardized according to today's technical limitations. There are standards in major regional markets, including North America, Japan, the European Union and China. However, current charging technology is limited by power.

 

The standard of electric vehicle charging connector has been narrowed. For AC charging, North America and Japan use SAE J1772 type 1 connector, Europe uses IEC 62196 type 2 (also known as mennekes) connector, and China uses a version of GB/T connector. In North America and Europe, DC charging adopts a variant of combined charging system (CCS). Chademo is a Japanese standard, and gb/t is adopted in China. In addition, there are regional differences in the level of available power related to the difference in supply voltage.

 

EV Charging Connector

 

Every electric vehicle sold in North America can use a charging station with J1772 connector. Except Tesla, all electric vehicles use J1772 for level 1 (120V) and level 2 (240V) charging. Tesla owners will receive an adapter cable to connect their electric vehicle to a charging station with a J1772 connector.

 

Since there is no 120V service in homes in Europe, level 1 charging is not used. Instead of J1772, IEC 62196 type 2 connector is used for Level 2 AC charging. Tesla is once again the exception, and most of its electric vehicles use proprietary connectors. However, a few Tesla models use IEC 62196 type 2 connectors. In Europe and North America, Tesla's class 1 and class 2 chargers use proprietary connectors, and electric vehicles from other manufacturers require adapters.

DC EV charger Cable

Current DC fast charger uses 480 V main power supply for faster charging. With the advent of higher power and faster charging technology, this input voltage level is expected to rise in the future. In North America, CCS type 1 connector "combines" J1772 connector and adds two high-speed charging pins below. In Europe, CCS combines IEC 62196 type 2 with two high-speed charging pins, which is called CCS type 2.

 

CHARIN (charging interface initiative) is headquartered in Germany, and its goal is to establish CCS as the global standard for EV DC fast charging. CHARIN has more than 250 members and is working to develop new technologies and expand its scope to MW charging systems for large vehicles such as trucks, electric ferries, boats and aircraft.

 

 

Chademo, developed by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), is used for EV DC fast charging all over Japan. Compared with CCS system, chademo connector does not share some connectors with J1772 inlet. Since chademo is strictly used for DC fast charging, electric vehicles using this connector also include a separate J1772 inlet for AC level 1 and level 2 charging, which requires a larger charging port area to accommodate two separate charging inlets.

 

DC fast charge connectors

 

Tesla is an exception to the above case. Its vehicles use the same proprietary connectors for level 1, level 2 and DC fast charging. Tesla EV charging connector can accept all voltages. Non Tesla vehicles can use Tesla class 1 and class 2 AC chargers with appropriate adapter connectors. Only Tesla Motors can use the company's supercharger DC fast charging station. The super charging station uses an authentication process to ensure that it can only charge Tesla vehicles. Even with the adapter, non Tesla electric vehicles cannot be charged at the Tesla supercharger DC fast charging station.

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